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        《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(3)(中英對照)

        來源:可可英語 編輯:Villa ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

        II. Ending Extreme Poverty and Securing the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living

        二、消除絕對貧困實現基本生活水準權

        Poverty is the biggest obstacle to human rights. The CPC and the Chinese government have directed extra attention to rural poverty, furthering development-driven poverty alleviation, and achieving a series of important breakthroughs. The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 made ending extreme poverty China's benchmark task in achieving moderate prosperity in all respects. By eliminating extreme poverty China has won the biggest and toughest battle against poverty in human history, to the benefit of the largest number of people.

        貧困是實現人權的最大障礙。中國共產黨和中國政府高度關注農村貧困問題,持續推進扶貧開發事業,在消除貧困道路上不斷取得新突破。中共十八大以來,中國政府把貧困人口全部脫貧作為全面建成小康社會的底線任務和標志性指標,組織實施了人類歷史上規??涨?、力度最大、惠及人口最多的脫貧攻堅戰,完成了消除絕對貧困的艱巨任務。

        By the end of 2020, by China's current poverty threshold of RMB2,300 per person per year (based on the 2010 price index), all of the 99 million rural poor, as well as the 832 counties and 128,000 villages classified as poor, had emerged from poverty, and regional poverty was eliminated.

        根據中國農村居民每人每年生活水平在2300元以下(2010年不變價)的現行貧困標準,經過中共十八大以來8年持續奮斗,到2020年底,中國現行標準下9899萬農村貧困人口全部脫貧,832個貧困縣全部摘帽,12.8萬個貧困村全部出列,區域性整體貧困得到解決。

        Since the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, 770 million rural poor living below China's poverty line have been raised from poverty; against the World Bank's international poverty line, the number of people lifted out of poverty in China accounts for more than 70 percent of the world total during the same period. China realized its poverty reduction goal from the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule, representing a significant contribution to global poverty reduction and human progress.

        改革開放以來,按照現行貧困標準計算,中國7.7億農村貧困人口擺脫貧困;按照世界銀行國際貧困標準,中國減貧人口占同期全球減貧人口70%以上。中國提前10年實現《聯合國2030年可持續發展議程》減貧目標,為全球減貧事業發展和人類發展進步作出了重大貢獻。

        1. Securing the Right to Food for the Poor

        1.貧困人口食物權得到穩定保障

        China bases its food security on solid agricultural foundations. It has built a modern agrotechnology system, improved comprehensive agricultural productivity, maintained the steady growth of agricultural output, and resolved the problems of insufficient food and undernutrition. China's total grain output increased from 113 million tons in 1949 to 669 million tons in 2020. China's per capita share of grain now exceeds 474 kg, which is comfortably above the international food security threshold of 400 kg.

        中國政府通過發展農業生產奠定免于饑餓的堅實基礎。建設現代農業產業技術體系,提升農業綜合生產能力,實現農產品產量穩定增長,解決食物匱乏和營養不良問題。全國糧食總產量由1949年的11318萬噸提高到2020年的66949萬噸。目前,全國人均糧食占有量超過474.4公斤,高于人均400公斤的國際糧食安全標準線。通過增加收入保障貧困人口糧食獲取。建立精準扶貧、精準脫貧機制。

        China has ensured that all the poor have access to food by increasing their incomes through targeted poverty alleviation. The per capita disposable income of rural residents in poor areas increased from RMB6,079 in 2013 to RMB12,588 in 2020, an average annual increase of 11.6 percent. The amount of grain they consumed increased steadily. Now, the problem of food shortages has been resolved. Key impoverished groups have much better nutrition, and the right to be free from hunger is guaranteed.

        貧困地區農村居民人均可支配收入,從2013年的6079元增長到2020年的12588元,2013年至2020年年均增長11.6%。貧困人口糧谷類食物攝入量穩定增加,“不愁吃”問題基本解決,重點貧困群體健康營養狀況明顯改善,免于饑餓的基本權利得以切實保障。通過營養改善計劃保障貧困兒童食物供給。

        China ensures a proper food supply for poor children through nutrition programs. The Chinese government has implemented the Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas, providing children aged six months to two years in contiguous poverty-stricken areas with free food supplements – one pack per child per day. By 2020, this program had benefited 11.2 million children. There is also a Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Students in Compulsory Education, providing them with nutrition allowances. This program covers 132,000 schools and benefits over 38 million students every year.

        實施貧困地區兒童營養改善項目,為集中連片特殊困難地區6-24月齡嬰幼兒每天免費提供1包輔食營養補充品,截至2020年累計1120萬兒童受益。實施農村義務教育學生營養改善計劃,為學生提供營養膳食補助,覆蓋農村義務教育階段學校13.2萬所,每年惠及3800余萬名學生。

        2. Ensuring Safe Drinking Water for the Poor

        2.貧困人口飲水安全得到有力保障

        Since 2005, the Chinese government has made an enormous investment in its Safe Drinking Water Program for Rural Areas. By the end of 2015, the program had benefited 520 million rural residents, including 47 million teachers and students. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), it launched an upgraded program, which improved access to safe drinking water for 382 million rural people, including 28.9 million rural poor. Tap water coverage in poor areas increased from 70 percent in 2015 to 83 percent in 2020. Through replacement of water sources, water purification, and population resettlement, China has resolved the problem of excess fluoride in drinking water for 9.52 million rural people.

        2005年以來,中國政府投入大量財政資金實施農村飲水安全工程,到2015年末共解決了5.2億農村居民和4700多萬農村學校師生的飲水安全問題。農村飲水安全問題基本得到解決?!笆濉币巹澠陂g,又實施農村飲水安全鞏固提升工程,累計解決2889萬貧困人口飲水安全問題,3.82億農村人口受益。貧困地區自來水普及率從2015年的70%提高到2020年的83%。各地通過實施水源置換、凈化處理、易地搬遷等措施,累計解決952萬農村人口飲水型氟超標問題。

        3. Providing Compulsory Education in Poor Areas

        3.貧困地區義務教育得到充分保障

        To guarantee compulsory education and prevent poverty from passing down from one generation to the next, China launched the Plan for Poverty Alleviation Through Education During the 13th Five-Year Plan period and the Implementation Plan for Poverty Alleviation Through Education in Severely Impoverished Areas (2018-2020).

        深入實施《教育脫貧攻堅“十三五”規劃》和《深度貧困地區教育脫貧攻堅實施方案(2018-2020年)》,實現義務教育有保障,阻斷貧困代際傳遞。大力改善貧困地區義務教育學校辦學條件,持續提升義務教育學校辦學水平和教育質量。

        A great effort has been invested in improving school conditions and education quality for compulsory education in poor areas. Now, all primary and secondary schools in China have access to the internet, and 95.3 percent have multimedia classrooms.

        全國中小學(含教學點)互聯網接入率達到100%,擁有多媒體教室的學校比例達到95.3%。實施農村義務教育學校教師特設崗位計劃,吸引更多優秀高校畢業生到農村貧困地區任教。

        The Program for Special Teaching Posts in Rural Compulsory Education has been implemented to attract more university graduates to teach in poor rural areas. Living subsidies are offered to rural teachers in contiguous poverty-stricken areas, which benefit nearly 1.3 million teachers from more than 80,000 schools. A total of 190,000 teachers have been dispatched to remote and poor areas and to border areas with large ethnic minority populations.

        連片特困地區鄉村教師生活補助惠及8萬多所學校、127萬名教師,累計選派19萬名教師到邊遠貧困地區、邊疆民族地區支教。

        The system of financial aid to students has been improved to provide targeted assistance. Students from registered poor households all receive living subsidies during their compulsory education. Every year, about 150 million students are given exemption from school fees and textbook fees; about 25 million students in economic difficulty are provided with living subsidies; and about 14 million students from migrant worker families have had their compulsory education subsidies transferred to their urban schools. All students from poor rural households have access to compulsory education, and dropouts are all identified and helped back to school in a timely manner. In 2020, the compulsory education completion rate in poor counties reached 94.8 percent.

        建立健全學生資助體系,不斷提高學生資助精準度,對義務教育階段建檔立卡家庭經濟困難學生全部給予生活費補助。全國每年約1.5億城鄉義務教育學生免除雜費并獲得免費教科書,約2500萬家庭經濟困難學生獲得生活補助,約1400萬進城務工人員隨遷子女實現相關教育經費可攜帶。農村貧困家庭子女義務教育階段輟學問題實現動態清零,2020年貧困縣九年義務教育鞏固率達到94.8%。

        4. Providing Essential Medical Services for the Poor

        4.貧困人口基本醫療得到有效保障

        China launched the Health Care Program for Poverty Alleviation, taking comprehensive measures to guarantee access to essential medical services for the rural poor, and to prevent them from falling back into poverty due to ill health.

        實施健康扶貧工程,采取綜合措施,保障農村貧困人口享有基本醫療衛生服務,著力提高農村貧困人口醫療保障水平,緩解因病致貧因病返貧問題。

        Continuous efforts have been made to improve the three-tiered medical services system at village, township and county levels. Every village has a clinic, and every town or township has a health center served by licensed doctors, except for villages, towns and townships that already satisfy the requirements for basic medical services. Each of the counties formerly classified as poor has at least one public hospital, and 98 percent of them have at least one Grade II hospital. The aim is to ensure the poor can have common ailments and chronic diseases treated at nearby medical institutions in a timely manner.

        持續完善縣鄉村三級醫療衛生服務體系,除符合基本醫療有保障標準、可不設立的外,實現每個鄉鎮和每個行政村都有一個衛生院和衛生室并配備合格醫生,每個貧困縣至少有1家公立醫院;98%的貧困縣至少有一家二級以上醫院;貧困群眾常見病、慢性病基本能夠就近獲得及時診治。

        All poor populations have access to basic medical insurance, serious illness insurance, and medical assistance. Basic medical insurance coverage of the poor remains almost 100 percent. Measures have been taken to ensure medical treatment to those with serious illnesses, contracted health care to those with chronic illnesses, and guaranteed medical services for those with critical illnesses. Now, 30 illnesses are covered by special funds for serious illnesses of the rural poor, including congenital heart defects in children, leukemia in children, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, and serious mental illnesses. The funds have supported treatment for more than 20 million poor patients, relieving their families of the financial burden incurred by medical expenses.

        把貧困人口全部納入基本醫療保險、大病保險、醫療救助三重制度保障范圍,貧困人口基本醫療保險參保率穩定在99.9%以上,基本實現應保盡保。實施大病集中救治、慢病簽約管理、重病兜底保障等措施,農村貧困人口大病專項救治病種數量增加到30種,包括兒童先心病、兒童白血病、胃癌、食道癌、結腸癌、重性精神疾病等。2000多萬貧困患者得到分類救治,曾經被病魔困擾的家庭挺起了生活的脊梁。

        5. Ensuring Safe Housing for the Poor

        5.貧困人口住房安全得到切實保障

        To guarantee safe housing for the rural poor, China has launched programs such as the renovation of dilapidated rural homes and construction of rural public rental housing. Tens of millions of people have had their dilapidated mud-and-straw dwellings replaced by safe homes which are more comfortable and offer better protection against earthquakes. The right to housing and basic housing safety of the rural poor were fundamentally guaranteed.

        通過農村危房改造、建設集體公租房等措施,幫助數千萬貧困農民告別原來的破舊泥草房、土坯房等危房,住上安全房,農房抗震防災能力和居住舒適度得到顯著提升,農村貧困人口住有所居和基本住房安全得到切實保障。

        Between 2008 and 2020, the central government allocated a total of RMB284 billion for the renovation of 27.6 million dilapidated homes, targeting registered poor households, households entitled to subsistence allowances, severely impoverished rural residents cared for at their homes with government support, and impoverished families of individuals with disabilities. These funds have helped to guarantee access to safe housing for 80 million rural poor.

        其中,2008年至2020年,中央財政累計投入2842.5億元補助資金,支持2762.2萬戶建檔立卡貧困戶、低保戶、農村分散供養特困人員、貧困殘疾人家庭等貧困群眾改造危房,幫助8000多萬農村貧困人口住上了安全住房。

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