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        《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(4)(中英對照)

        來源:可可英語 編輯:Villa ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

        III. Boosting Human Rights with Development and Securing Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

        三、以發展促人權增進經濟社會文化權利

        In building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, China is committed to boosting human rights with development and securing economic, social, cultural, educational and environmental rights. As a result, its people now lead more prosperous, secure, harmonious and happier lives.

        在全面建成小康社會進程中,中國堅持以發展促人權,推動全面落實經濟社會權利、文化教育權利以及生態環境權利,人民生活更加富足安康、和諧幸福。

        1. Putting Life First in Fighting Covid-19

        1.疫情防控奉行生命至上

        The Covid-19 pandemic is the most serious global health emergency in a century. Facing this crisis, China has put the people's interests first – nothing is more precious than people's lives. It has adopted thorough, rigorous and effective prevention and control measures, regardless of huge economic and social costs. It has turned the tide in the battle against the virus and safeguarded people's lives and health.

        新冠肺炎疫情是百年以來人類經歷的最嚴重的全球公共衛生突發事件。中國堅持人民至上、生命至上,不惜付出巨大經濟社會代價,在疫情暴發之初就采取最全面最嚴格最有力的防控措施,有力扭轉了疫情局勢,維護人民生命安全和身體健康。

        In the early days of the epidemic, China mobilized the whole nation and carried out a campaign to save lives on an unprecedented scale. It pooled the best doctors, the most advanced equipment, and critical supplies from across the country to aid Hubei Province, especially its capital city of Wuhan.

        疫情暴發初期,中國舉全國之力實施了規??涨暗纳缶仍?,從全國調集最優秀的醫生、最先進的設備、最急需的資源千里馳援武漢市和湖北省。

        From January 24 to March 8, 2020, it rallied 346 national medical teams, consisting of 42,600 medical workers and more than 900 public health professionals to the immediate aid of Hubei; it mobilized 40,000 construction workers and a huge array of machinery and equipment to build the 1,000-bed Huoshenshan Hospital in 10 days, the 1,600-bed Leishenshan Hospital in 12 days, and 16 temporary treatment centers providing more than 14,000 beds in just over 10 days. Across Hubei, more than 3,000 patients over the age of 80, including seven centenarians, were cured, with many of them brought back to life from the verge of death. This fully demonstrated that the state respects and protects each and every life.

        2020年1月24日至3月8日,全國共調集346支國家醫療隊、4.26萬名醫務人員、900多名公共衛生人員馳援湖北;緊急調集4萬名建設者和幾千臺機械設備,分別僅用十多天時間就建成了有1000張病床的火神山醫院、有1600張病床的雷神山醫院和共有1.4萬余張床位的16座方艙醫院。湖北省共成功治愈3000余位80歲以上、7位百歲以上患者,多位重癥老年患者都是從死亡線上搶救回來,充分體現了對每一個生命的尊重和保護。

        China did everything possible to treat all patients. The government promptly adopted policies to subsidize medical expenses for Covid-19 to ensure that patients could receive timely treatment and that medical institutions could proceed smoothly with admission and treatment. They proved to be very effective in raising the cure rate and lowering the fatality rate.

        全力以赴救治患者,不遺漏每一個感染者,不放棄每一位病患者,及時出臺救治費用保障政策,確?;颊卟灰蛸M用問題影響就醫、醫療機構不因費用問題影響收治,最大程度提高了治愈率,降低了病亡率。

        China has combined ongoing targeted control and local emergency response, and consolidated the gains in its fight against Covid-19. It is making every effort to vaccinate its people and moving faster to form nationwide immunity.

        堅持常態化精準防控和局部應急處置有機結合,不斷鞏固疫情防控成果。大力推進新冠疫苗接種,加快構筑免疫屏障。

        2. Ensuring Equitable and Accessible Health Services

        2.衛生健康服務公平可及

        Prosperity for all is impossible without health for all. China gives top priority to improving its people's health. It is carrying out the Healthy China initiative and has worked out action plans to ensure that basic public health services are inclusive and efficient, and to make health and medical services more equitable, accessible, convenient and affordable.

        沒有全民健康,就沒有全面小康。中國把人民健康放在優先發展的戰略位置,實施健康中國戰略,推進健康中國行動,推行普惠高效的基本公共衛生服務,不斷提升醫療衛生服務的公平性、可及性、便利性和可負擔性。

        A basic public health services system is in place. The number of medical and health institutions in China, including hospitals, grassroots medical institutions and specialized public health institutions, increased from 170,000 in 1978 to over 1 million in 2020. A public health services system consisting of various specialized institutions has taken shape, providing disease prevention and control, health education, maternal and child health care, mental health care, emergency response, blood collection and supply, health inspection, and other services.

        公共衛生服務體系基本形成。全國醫療衛生機構(包含醫院、基層醫療機構、專業公共衛生機構)由1978年的17萬個大幅增長到2020年的102.3萬個。包括疾病預防控制、健康教育、婦幼保健、精神衛生防治、應急救治、采供血、衛生監督等各種專業機構在內的公共衛生服務體系基本形成。公共衛生服務范圍不斷擴大。

        The range of public health services is expanding. Free basic public health services increased from nine categories in 2010 to 12 categories in 2020, spanning the entire life cycle. The state promotes many preventive services, such as screening for stroke and cardiovascular disease risk, comprehensive oral disease prevention and intervention, and early screening and treatment of cancer. China's capacity to prevent and control chronic illnesses has improved remarkably. Major infectious diseases have been effectively contained. By raising the vaccination rates under the national immunization program, China eradicated polio in 2000 and neonatal tetanus in 2012. It eliminated malaria in 2020 and was awarded a malaria-free certification from the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2021. The spread of HIV remains at a low level, and the cure rate of tuberculosis is maintained at over 90 percent.

        城鄉居民免費享受的基本公共衛生服務項目由2010年的9類擴展到2020年的12類,項目內容覆蓋居民生命的全過程。持續實施腦卒中、心血管疾病高危篩查、口腔疾病綜合干預、癌癥早診早治等項目,慢性病防控效果顯著增強。主要傳染性疾病得到有效遏制。通過提升免疫規劃疫苗接種率,中國在2000年消滅了脊髓灰質炎,在2012年消除了新生兒破傷風,在2020年消除了瘧疾,2021年被世界衛生組織認證為無瘧疾國家。艾滋病整體疫情控制在低流行水平,結核病成功治療率保持在90%以上。

        China's medical services system has been improving. The country is committed to building an integrated medical services system of high quality and efficiency and improving the availability and accessibility of medical resources. As a result, public satisfaction with medical services is rising notably.

        醫療衛生服務體系不斷健全。中國致力于建立優質高效的整合型醫療衛生服務體系,改善醫療衛生資源的可及性和便利性,提高醫療服務質量和效率,居民就醫感受明顯改善。

        In 2020, the number of beds in medical institutions across the country reached 9.1 million, including 7.1 million beds in hospitals and 1.4 million in township-level health centers. There were 10.7 million health professionals, including 4.1 million licensed doctors and assistant doctors and 4.7 million registered nurses. That year recorded 7.8 billion medical visits. The rate of prenatal care was 96.8 percent, and the rate of hospital deliveries reached 99.9 percent.

        2020年,全國醫療衛生機構床位總數達911萬張,其中醫院713萬張,鄉鎮衛生院139萬張;衛生技術人員總數達1066萬人,其中執業醫師和執業助理醫師408萬人,注冊護士471萬人;全年總診療人次78.2億人次,孕產婦產前檢查率達96.8%,住院分娩率為99.9%。

        China provides a reasonable distribution of medical resources. It is building a tiered treatment system featuring primary treatment at the community level, flexible inter-hospital patient transfer, differentiated treatment for acute and chronic illnesses, and coordination across different levels. It has put an end to the practice of hospitals subsidizing their medical services with drug sales and established a system of essential medicines. All government-funded medical institutions across the country are supplied with essential medicines, which are guaranteed to meet priority health care needs and sold with zero markup.

        合理配置醫療資源,構建“基層首診、雙向轉診、急慢分治、上下聯動”的分級診療服務體系。取消以藥補醫機制,建立基本藥物制度,各級各類公立醫療機構全面配備優先使用基本藥物,實行零差率銷售。

        Public health indicators are steadily improving. The core health indicators of the Chinese have generally surpassed the average level of middle- and high-income countries. The average life expectancy in China rose from 67.8 years in 1981 to 77.3 years in 2019. Infant mortality declined from 37.6 per 1,000 in the early days of reform and opening up to 5.4 per 1,000 in 2020; and maternal mortality dropped from 43.2 per 100,000 in 2002 to 16.9 per 100,000 in 2020. In recognition of its achievements, China has been hailed by the WHO as a role model for developing countries and a fast-track country in improving maternal and child health.

        人民健康指標穩步改善。居民主要健康指標總體上優于中高收入國家平均水平。中國人均預期壽命從1981年的67.8歲增長到2019年的77.3歲。嬰兒死亡率從改革開放初期的37.6‰下降到2020年的5.4‰。孕產婦死亡率從2002年的43.2/10萬下降到2020年的16.9/10萬,被世界衛生組織譽為“發展中國家的典范”“婦幼健康高績效國家”。

        The Law on the Promotion of Basic Medical and Health Care has been adopted and implemented, providing a legal guarantee for comprehensive health care for the full life cycle and for the Healthy China initiative. With steady social and economic improvement, the state devotes itself to helping citizens develop healthy lifestyles. A social atmosphere has taken shape where both urban and rural residents do regular exercise in their spare time and pay attention to a healthy diet.

        基本醫療衛生與健康促進法通過并實施,為全方位全周期維護人民健康、實施健康中國戰略提供法治保障。隨著經濟社會的發展,國家不斷引導居民形成健康的生活方式。城鄉居民在工作之余鍛煉身體、關注飲食健康已經成為普遍的社會風氣。

        3. Upgrading the Quality of Life

        3.生活質量顯著提高

        Incomes continue to rise. For four decades, China's economy has been growing steadily. From 1978 to 2020, the country's per capita GDP increased from RMB385 to RMB72,000. In 2020, the average per capita disposable income was RMB32,189. Consumption patterns are improving. In 2020, the Engel coefficient was 30.2 percent, down 33.7 percentage points from 1978. Housing conditions have improved markedly. In 2019, the per capita floor space of urban residents was 39.8 sq m, up from 4.2 sq m in 1978, and that of rural residents was 48.9 sq m, up from 8.1 sq m in 1978. Urban park green space per capita increased from 1.5 sq m in 1981 to 14.36 sq m in 2019. Construction projects have been launched to provide affordable housing to urban residents, helping nearly 200 million poor people improve their housing conditions.

        居民收入水平持續提升。中國經濟長期持續穩定增長,人均國內生產總值從1978年的385元增至2020年的72000元。2020年,全國居民人均可支配收入達到32189元。居民消費結構日益優化。2020年全國居民恩格爾系數為30.2%,比1978年降低33.7個百分點?;揪幼l件顯著改善。城鎮居民人均住房建筑面積從1978年的4.2平方米增長到2019年的39.8平方米;農村居民人均住房建筑面積從1978年的8.1平方米增長到2019年的48.9平方米。城市人均公園綠地面積從1981年的1.5平方米增長到2019年的14.36平方米。實施城鎮保障性安居工程,幫助約2億困難群眾改善了住房條件。交通基礎網絡日益完善,人民出行更加安全便利。

        China's transport infrastructure network has been improving steadily, resulting in more convenient and safer public transport. By the end of 2020, the country's rail length had grown to 146,000 km, and high-speed rail had reached 38,000 km; road length had increased to 5.2 million km, including 161,000 km of expressways; urban rail transit had reached 7,355 km.

        截至2020年,全國鐵路運營里程達14.6萬公里,其中高速鐵路運營里程3.8萬公里。公路總里程達519.81萬公里,其中高速公路里程16.1萬公里。城市軌道交通運營里程達7354.7公里。信息化生活品質大幅提升。

        The availability of IT applications has improved greatly. The Chinese government makes great efforts to develop new types of infrastructure to ensure that the people benefit more from the use of information technology. In 2020, every 100 people had 113.9 mobile phones; internet usage was 70.4 percent nationwide and 55.9 percent in rural areas. By June 2021, 847,000 5G base stations had been built and put into operation across the country. New business forms represented by online shopping are thriving. In 2020, there were 782 million online shoppers, accounting for 79.1 percent of all internet users, and nationwide online retail sales reached RMB11.8 trillion, up 10.9 percent from 2019.

        中國政府大力實施新型基礎設施建設,讓人民群眾享受更多的信息化發展成果。2020年,全國移動電話普及率達113.9部/百人;互聯網普及率達70.4%,其中農村地區互聯網普及率為55.9%。截至2021年6月,全國已建設開通5G基站84.7萬個?;ヂ摼W在線購物等消費新業態蓬勃發展。2020年,全國網絡購物用戶規模達7.82億,占網民整體的79.1%;全國網絡零售額11.76萬億元,比2019年增長10.9%。

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