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        《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(5)(中英對照)

        來源:可可英語 編輯:Villa ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

        4. Maximizing Employment

        4.就業更加充分

        China advocates an employment-first strategy and a proactive employment policy. It encourages widespread entrepreneurship and innovation, and gives top priority to ensuring stability in employment and people's wellbeing. It is committed to realizing fuller employment, with decent jobs for all and harmonious labor relations. It has established a five-tiered employment services network covering the province, city, county, sub-district/township, and community/village levels.

        中國政府堅持實施就業優先戰略和積極的就業政策,推動“大眾創業、萬眾創新”,突出強調“要優先穩就業保民生”,致力實現充分就業、體面就業、和諧就業的美好愿景。建立起覆蓋省、市、縣、街道(鄉鎮)、社區(村)的五級公共就業服務網絡體系。

        As of 2020, there were 45,800 employment services agencies in China, helping 290 million people find temporary or long-term work; China's employed population reached 750 million, of whom 463 million were in urban areas. In 2019, the growth in new jobs in urban areas was 13.5 million, and the figure had remained above 13 million for seven consecutive years. In 2020, despite the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, there were 11.9 million new jobs in urban areas.

        截至2020年,全國共有人力資源服務機構4.58萬家,全年為2.9億人次勞動者提供了就業、擇業和流動服務;全國就業人數為75064萬人,其中城鎮就業人數為46271萬人。2019年,中國城鎮新增就業1352萬人,連續7年保持在1300萬人以上。在新冠肺炎疫情帶來的不利影響下,2020年中國城鎮新增就業仍達到1186萬人。

        Private enterprises provide more than 80 percent of urban jobs. New industries and new business forms and models continue to emerge, creating a large number of part-time or flexible jobs. Workers' incomes are increasing rapidly. The average annual salary of employees in urban non-private units rose from RMB615 in 1978 to RMB90,501 in 2019.

        民營企業提供了80%以上城鎮就業崗位。新產業新業態新模式不斷涌現,創造了大量兼職就業、靈活就業崗位。勞動者工資收入快速增長,城鎮非私營單位就業人員年均工資從1978年的615元增加到2019年的90501元。

        5. Enhancing Public Cultural Services

        5.公共文化服務不斷優化

        Over the past four decades, China's public cultural services have continued to improve. Art, literature, culture and sports are thriving.

        經過40多年的發展,覆蓋城鄉的公共文化服務體系不斷完善,文藝創作持續繁榮,文化體育事業蓬勃發展。

        In 2020, China had 3,212 public libraries, 5,788 museums, 3,321 cultural centers, 32,825 township-level cultural stations, and 575,384 village-level cultural service centers. In publishing, 27.7 billion copies of newspapers, 2 billion copies of magazines, and 10.1 billion copies of books were issued, a per capita average of 7.2 books.

        2020年,全國共有公共圖書館3212個,博物館5788家,文化館3321個,鄉鎮綜合文化站32825個,村級綜合性文化服務中心575384個。全年出版各類報紙277億份,各類期刊20億冊,圖書101億冊(張),人均圖書擁有量達7.24冊(張)。全國廣播節目綜合人口覆蓋率為99.4%,電視節目綜合人口覆蓋率為99.6%。

        In 2020, the coverage of radio programs was 99.4 percent, and the coverage of TV programs 99.6 percent. The country produced 202 TV series, TV animations with a total length of 116,688 minutes, 531 feature films, and 119 popular science films, documentaries, animated cartoons and special films. Public-interest cultural initiatives to ensure radio and television coverage for all households, bring cinema to rural communities, and set up rural libraries were implemented to provide consistent and equal access to basic public cultural services and to protect the people's basic cultural rights and interests.

        全年生產電視劇202部7476集,電視動畫片116688分鐘,故事影片531部,科教、紀錄、動畫和特種影片119部。實施廣播電視戶戶通工程、農村電影放映工程、農家書屋工程等文化惠民工程,促進基本公共文化服務標準化、均等化,保障人民群眾基本文化權益。

        In 2020, a total of 1,274 terabytes of public cultural resources were created through projects under the public digital cultural services program. Among them, the digital library project covered 39 provincial-level and 376 city-level libraries, with services radiating into 2,760 county-level libraries.

        公共數字文化工程累計建設可供全國共享的數字資源約1274TB,數字圖書館推廣工程已覆蓋全國39家省級圖書館、376家市級圖書館,服務輻射2760個縣級圖書館。建設完善公共體育場、全民健身中心、體育公園、健身步道、足球場、多功能健身場地等多種類型的全民健身場地設施,倡導全民健身。

        The state is promoting a national fitness program. Sports venues of various types have been built or renovated, including public stadiums, fitness centers, sports parks, running trails, soccer fields, and multifunctional fitness facilities. In 2020, there were 3.7 million sports venues in China, with a total floor area of 3.1 billion sq m (2.2 sq m per capita); 37.2 percent of the population took part in regular exercise; the rural fitness program covered almost all villages.

        2020年,全國共有體育場地371.3萬個,體育場地面積31億平方米,人均體育場地面積2.2平方米,行政村“農民體育健身工程”基本實現全覆蓋,經常參加體育鍛煉人數比例達37.2%。

        6. Guaranteeing the Right to Education

        6.受教育權利得到更好保障

        China runs education for the public good and regards equal access to education as a basic national education policy. It has made significant progress in protecting the right to education. The gross enrollment rate in three-year preschool education rose to 85.2 percent in 2020 from 56.6 percent in 2010. In 2020, the completion rate of compulsory education was 95.2 percent, and the availability of compulsory education reached the average level of high-income countries. More than 95 percent of children with disabilities received compulsory education.

        中國堅持教育公益性原則,把教育公平作為國家基本教育政策,受教育權保障水平顯著提升。全國學前三年毛入園率從2010年的56.6%提高到2020年的85.2%,實現了學前教育基本普及。2020年,全國九年義務教育鞏固率為95.2%,義務教育普及程度達到世界高收入國家的平均水平。殘疾兒童義務教育入學率達95%以上。

        The state has established a policy system for subsidizing students with financial difficulties, which offers full coverage from preschool to postgraduate education. As a result, the goal of ensuring that no student drops out of school due to financial difficulties has now been largely achieved. The state gives more support to education in rural areas and central and western regions. Thanks to this, 96.8 percent of the counties nationwide have realized balanced compulsory education, and more children in rural areas and central and western regions enjoy better access to quality education.

        建立覆蓋從學前教育到研究生教育的全學段學生資助政策體系,不讓一個孩子因家庭經濟困難而輟學的目標基本實現。傾斜支持農村教育、中西部地區教育,全國96.8%的縣實現義務教育基本均衡發展,更多農村和中西部地區孩子享受到更好更公平的教育。

        The gross enrollment rate in senior secondary education increased from 42.8 percent in 2000 to 91.2 percent in 2020, higher than the average of upper-middle-income countries. The gross enrollment rate in higher education rose from 12.5 percent in 2000 to 54.4 percent in 2020. China has built the world's largest higher education system, with over 40 million students on campus.

        全國高中階段教育毛入學率從2000年的42.8%提高到2020年的91.2%,超過中等偏上收入國家平均水平;高等教育毛入學率從2000年的12.5%提高到2020年的54.4%,高等教育在學總規模超過4000萬人,建成世界上最大規模的高等教育體系。

        7. Expanding Social Security to Cover All Citizens

        7.社會保障體系覆蓋全民

        Social security is a basic institutional guarantee for safeguarding and improving people's lives, ensuring social equity and enhancing their sense of wellbeing.

        社會保障是保障和改善民生、維護社會公平、增進人民福祉的基本制度保障。

        In 2020, 340 million people were covered by basic medical insurance for urban workers, and 1.02 billion by basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents – a total of 1.36 billion. As of June 2021, basic old-age insurance for urban workers covered 467 million people, basic old-age insurance for rural and non-working urban residents covered 547 million, and unemployment insurance covered 222 million. Work-related injury insurance covered 274 million, 90.8 million of whom were migrant workers. Childbirth insurance covered more than 235 million people. In addition, the state has established a serious illness insurance covering both urban and rural residents, which is a supplement to the basic medical insurance systems, reimbursing the victims of serious illnesses for their high medical expenses.

        2020年,全國參加職工基本醫療保險人數3.4億人,參加城鄉居民基本醫療保險人數10.2億人,參??側藬党^13.6億人;參加生育保險人數23567萬人。截至2021年6月,全國參加城鎮職工基本養老保險人數46709萬人,參加城鄉居民基本養老保險人數54735萬人;參加失業保險人數22229萬人;參加工傷保險人數27399萬人,其中參加工傷保險的農民工9082萬人;參加生育保險人數23546萬人。國家還通過城鄉居民大病保險等補充保險,在基本醫保制度之外對大病患者高額醫療費用予以保障。

        China has established a comprehensive and inclusive social assistance system whose main provisions are subsistence allowances, assistance and support for severely impoverished people, disaster relief, medical assistance, education assistance, housing assistance, employment assistance, and temporary assistance, supplemented by public participation. At the end of 2020, 8 million people lived on urban subsistence allowances, 36.2 million on rural subsistence allowances, 310,000 on assistance and support for urban residents in extreme difficulty, and 4.5 million on assistance and support for rural residents in extreme difficulty. In 2020, 13.4 million received temporary assistance; 186 million received medical assistance worth of RMB54.7 billion.

        構筑以最低生活保障、特困人員救助供養、受災人員救助、醫療救助、教育救助、住房救助、就業救助、臨時救助等為主體,社會力量參與為補充,應救盡救的綜合性社會救助體系。截至2020年,全國共有805萬人獲得城市最低生活保障,3621萬人獲得農村最低生活保障,31萬人獲得城市特困人員救助供養,447萬人獲得農村特困人員救助供養,全年臨時救助1341萬人次,全國共實施醫療救助18608萬人次,支出資金546.8億元。

        To guarantee a basic living to people in difficulties caused by Covid-19, the government provided temporary subsidies totaling RMB21.8 billion to residents in need when the Consumer Price Index fluctuates beyond a certain range, benefitting 400 million people. Due to impact from Covid-19, subsistence allowances were extended to an additional 2.4 million people facing difficulties, and 2.5 million received temporary assistance.

        為保障受疫情影響困難群眾基本生活,2020年為困難群眾發放價格臨時補貼資金218億元,惠及4億人次;受疫情影響,困難群眾有244萬人新納入低保,有254萬人次獲得臨時救助。

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