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        《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(6)(中英對照)

        來源:可可英語 編輯:Villa ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

        8. Improving the Eco-environment

        8.生態環境持續改善

        A sound eco-environment is the most inclusive benefit to people's wellbeing. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the central leadership has incorporated eco-environmental progress as part of the Five-sphere Integrated Plan for national development and has promoted an environment-friendly development model, advocating that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. It has enforced strict eco-environmental red lines and made solid efforts to prevent and control pollution, working to build a beautiful China and protect environmental rights.

        良好生態環境是最普惠的民生福祉。中共十八大以來,將生態文明建設納入國家發展“五位一體”總體布局,倡導“綠水青山就是金山銀山”綠色發展理念,嚴守生態保護紅線,堅決打好污染防治攻堅戰,推進美麗中國建設,切實保護公民環境權利。堅決打贏藍天保衛戰,空氣更加清新。

        The air has become cleaner through efforts to keep the sky blue. In 2020, China's CO2 emissions per RMB10,000 of GDP fell by 48.4 percent from 2005, achieving the goal of a 40-to-45-percent fall during this period ahead of schedule. The proportion of natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power and other types of clean energy in total energy consumption rose from 19.1 percent in 2016 to 24.3 percent in 2020. Among the 337 cities at and above prefecture level nationwide, 202 met the air quality standards in 2020.

        2020年,全國萬元國內生產總值二氧化碳排放較2005年下降48.4%,提前完成比2005年下降40%至45%的碳排放目標。天然氣、水電、核電、風電等清潔能源消費量占能源消費總量比重從2016年的19.1%上升到2020年的24.3%(初步核算數)。全國337個地級及以上城市中,2020年空氣質量達標的城市占59.9%。

        Water quality is improving through efforts to keep waters clear. In 2020, 83.4 percent of the 1,940 surface water sections monitored by the state showed excellent and good quality (meeting Class I to Class III surface water quality standards), up 8.5 percentage points from 2019; 0.6 percent of sections suffered from poor water quality below Class V, down 2.8 percentage points from 2019. In 2020, 77.4 percent of offshore waters reached Class I and Class II sea water quality standards, up 0.8 percentage point from 2019; 9.4 percent of offshore waters were worse than Class IV, down 2.3 percentage points from 2019.

        著力打好碧水保衛戰,水質持續優化。2020年,1940個國家地表水考核斷面中,水質優良(Ⅰ-Ⅲ類)斷面比例為83.4%,比2019年上升8.5個百分點;劣Ⅴ類斷面比例為0.6%,比2019年下降2.8個百分點;全國近岸海域優良(一、二類)水質比例為77.4%,比2019年上升0.8個百分點;劣四類水質比例為9.4%,比2019年下降2.3個百分點。

        Effective measures have been taken to bring under control the risks associated with worsening soil qualities. The state has formulated the Law on Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution, and implemented its action plan for addressing soil pollution. National soil pollution surveys have been carried out, with the focus on land for agriculture and key industries and enterprises. From 2014 to 2019, more than 3,500 heavy-metal enterprises were shut down in accordance with laws and regulations, and more than 850 heavy-metal discharge reduction projects were carried out. The soil quality of agricultural land is subject to classification and restoration, and the soil environment of agricultural land remains stable. China has banned the import of foreign waste, and imports have largely fallen to zero.

        扎實推進凈土保衛戰,土壤環境風險得到有效管控。制定土壤污染防治法,實施土壤污染防治行動計劃。以農用地和重點行業企業用地為重點,開展土壤污染狀況詳查。2014年至2019年,全國依法依規關停涉重金屬行業企業3500余家,實施金屬減排工程850多個。開展農用地土壤環境質量類別劃分、治理修復等工作,農用地土壤環境狀況總體穩定。全面禁止洋垃圾入境,基本實現固體廢物零進口。人居環境不斷改善。

        The living environment is improving. In 2020, sanitary toilets were used by more than 68 percent of rural households. The system for the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of domestic waste covered more than 90 percent of villages. Domestic sewage treatment covered 25.5 percent of rural areas. In 46 major cities, 83 million households in 94.6 percent of communities were involved in domestic waste sorting programs. More than 90 percent of black and fetid water bodies in built-up areas of cities at and above prefecture level had been eliminated.

        2020年,全國農村衛生廁所普及率超過68%,生活垃圾進行收運處理的行政村比例超過90%,全國農村生活污水治理率達25.5%;46個重點城市生活垃圾分類覆蓋居民8300萬戶,居民小區覆蓋率94.6%,地級及以上城市建成區黑臭水體消除比例超過90%。實施最嚴格的生態保護。

        China enforces stringent eco-environmental conservation. As of 2020, nearly 10,000 nature reserves had been established across the country, covering 18 percent of China's land mass, and bringing some 90 percent of land ecosystems and 85 percent of key wild animal populations under effective protection. China's forest coverage rose from 12.7 percent in the early 1970s to 23 percent in 2020. While the global forest stock decreased by 178 million ha between 1990 and 2020, China's forest area has seen an average annual increase of 2.5 million ha in the past decade, ranking top in the world. Between 2012 and June 2021, China completed desertification control work involving over 19 million ha of land, and 1.8 million ha have been closed off to prevent deterioration. China has become the first country to achieve a zero increase in desertification, making a great contribution to the UN 2030 Sustainable Development Goal of zero increase in land degradation across the globe.

        截至2020年,全國共建立自然保護地近萬處,保護面積覆蓋陸域國土面積的18%,約90%的陸地生態系統類型和85%的重點野生動物種群得到有效保護。全國森林覆蓋率由20世紀70年代初的12.7%提高到2020年的23.04%。在全球森林面積持續凈損失達1.78億公頃的不利形勢下,中國森林面積近十年年凈增約249.9萬公頃,居全球第一。2012年至2021年6月,累計完成防沙治沙任務面積超過1900萬公頃,封禁保護面積達到177.2萬公頃。中國率先實現了荒漠化土地零增長,為實現《聯合國2030年可持續發展議程》提出的2030年全球退化土地零增長目標作出重要貢獻。

        9. Achieving a Higher HDI Score

        9.人類發展指數大幅提升

        According to the Human Development Report released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), China was among the low-ranked countries in terms of the human development index (HDI) score in 1990; it moved into the ranks of countries with medium HDI scores in 1996; it ascended into the ranks of countries with high HDI scores in 2011. From 1990 to 2019, China's HDI score increased from 0.499 to 0.761. China is the only country to have risen from a low-ranked country to a high-ranked country since 1990, when the UNDP first started to calculate countries' HDI ratings.

        根據聯合國開發計劃署發布的“人類發展報告”,1990年中國還處于低人類發展水平組,1996年便進入了中等人類發展水平組,2011年又步入高人類發展水平組。中國的人類發展指數從1990年的0.499增長到2019年的0.761,是自1990年聯合國開發計劃署在全球首次測算人類發展指數以來,唯一從低人類發展水平組跨越到高人類發展水平組的國家。

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