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        發達國家的就業率空前之高(中)

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        Why is the jobs recovery so fast? One reason is the nature of the shock that hit the economy in 2020. History shows that financial crunches—tight monetary policy, banking disasters and so on—cause prolonged pain.

        為何就業復蘇如此之快? 原因之一是2020年對經濟造成沖擊的事件本身的性質。歷史表明,金融緊縮——緊縮的貨幣政策,銀行災難等等——會對經濟造成長期的痛苦。

        But economies usually recover speedily from “real” disruptions such as natural disasters, wars and, in this case, a pandemic.

        但是,經濟通常會從“真實的”破壞中迅速恢復,比如自然災害、戰爭,再比如今天討論的新冠疫情。

        In 2005 Louisiana’s unemployment rate soared after Hurricane Katrina but quickly fell back (though part of the adjustment came from people moving away).

        2005年,卡特里娜颶風過后,路易斯安那州的失業率飆升,但很快就降了下來(雖然部分原因是人們搬走了)。

        After the second world war European labour markets rapidly absorbed soldiers returning from the front lines.

        二戰后,歐洲勞動力市場迅速吸納了從前線返回的士兵。

        Government policy has also boosted jobs. In 2020 countries including Australia, Britain, France and Germany launched or expanded job-protection or furlough schemes.

        政府的政策也促進了就業。2020年,澳大利亞、英國、法國、德國等國推出或擴大了工作保護或休假計劃。

        At the peak over a fifth of European workers remained technically employed even as they twiddled their thumbs.

        在巔峰時期,超過五分之一的歐洲工人在無事可做的時候仍然保有雇傭工作。

        When lockdowns lifted, they could quickly return to their roles—rather than having to search and apply for work, which takes time and thus keeps unemployment elevated.

        當封鎖解除后,他們可以迅速回到自己的崗位上,不需要四處求職,后者需要時間,從而使失業率居高不下。

        America launched a modest job-protection scheme, but its efforts were largely targeted at maintaining peoples’ incomes via stimulus cheques and topped-up unemployment benefits.

        美國推出了一項規模不大的就業保護計劃,但其主要是通過刺激性支票和增加失業救濟金來維持人們的收入。

        Stimulus schemes shored up families’ finances. Many households also reined in spending in 2020, allowing them to accumulate huge savings.

        刺激計劃撐起了民眾的財務狀況。2020年,許多家庭還控制了支出,從而積累了巨額儲蓄。

        The stockpile is now being spent on everything from consumer goods to housing, raising demand for workers in areas such as online retail and property services (including an extra 200,000 estate agents in America).

        這些儲蓄現在花在了從消費品到住房的方方面面,提高了諸如在線零售和房地產服務(包括美國新增的20萬名房地產中介)等領域對工人的需求。

        With labour demand so strong, employers are having not only to increase the number of jobs but also to improve their quality.

        由于勞動力需求如此強勁,雇主們不僅要增加工作崗位,還要提高崗位質量。

        Amazon exaggerated when, last year, it said it would try to be “Earth’s best employer”, but many other companies are promising similar things, whether by offering employees better in-office benefits (such as tastier cafeteria food) or better compensation packages (free college tuition).

        去年,亞馬遜稱其要成為“全球最佳雇主”的時候,有夸張色彩,但現在,許多其他公司也做出了類似的承諾,無論是為員工提供更好的辦公室福利(比如更美味的餐廳食物),還是更好的薪酬方案(免大學學費)。

        In 2021 venture investors put more than $12bn into global hr tech startups, roughly 3.6 times the capital invested in them in 2020, according to PitchBook, a data provider.

        數據提供商PitchBook的數據顯示,2021年,風險投資者向全球人力資源科技初創公司投入了逾120億美元,約為2020年的3.6倍。

        Bad employers are having a tough time. The share of Americans worried about poor job security is near a historical low.

        劣質雇主的日子比較艱難。擔心工作不穩定的美國人比例接近歷史低點。

        In Britain the share of full-time workers on a “zero-hours contract”, where there are no guaranteed hours, soared after the financial crisis but is now falling.

        在英國,沒有固定工作時間的“零時工合同”的全職員工比例在金融危機后大幅上升,但現在正在下降。

        Many of the gig-economy firms that grew in the early 2010s by relying on an army of underemployed workers are struggling to find staff. Whether in London, Paris or San Francisco, hailing a ride is harder than it used to be.

        許多零工經濟公司在2010年代早期,依靠大量未充分就業的工人發展起來,現在卻難以招到員工。無論是在倫敦、巴黎還是舊金山,打車比以前更難了。

        The best measure of labour-market tightness is pay, which distils the relative bargaining power of workers and firms into a single number. In some places the situation is clearly getting out of hand.

        衡量勞動力市場緊張度的最好方法是工資,它將工人和公司的相對議價能力凝練成了一個數字。在一些地方,情況顯然已經失控。

        Wheeler County, Nebraska, is a heavily agricultural place a long way from anywhere. In December unemployment fell to around 0.5%.

        內布拉斯加州惠勒縣是一個農業重鎮,離任何地方都很遠。12月,失業率降至0.5%左右。

        Jobs at a nearby Chipotle Mexican Grill pay $15-16.50 an hour, at least twice the federal minimum. Some firms claim to be raising wages by 30% or more.

        附近一家Chipotle Mexican Grill餐廳的工作時薪為15-16.50美元,至少是聯邦規定最低工資的兩倍。一些公司聲稱要將工資提高30%甚至更多。

        Some countries still look decidedly un-Nebraskan. Japanese wage growth is easing, not accelerating.

        一些國家的情況跟內布拉斯加完全不一樣。日本的工資增長正在放緩,而不是加速。

        In December the “special wage”, which includes winter bonuses and typically makes up about half of total cash wages in that month, fell by 1% year on year.

        12月的“特別工資”,包括冬季獎金,通常占當月現金工資總額的一半,同比下降了1%。

        German wage growth is doing nothing special. Canada’s is respectable but it is hard to make the case that things are out of control.

        德國的工資增長沒什么可說的。加拿大的工資增長值得尊敬,但也不能說到了失控的地步。

        重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
        respectable [ri'spektəbl]

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        n. 品格高尚的人
        adj. 值得尊重的,人格

        聯想記憶
        accelerating [æk'sæləreitiŋ]

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        adj. 加速的,促進的,催化的 動詞accelerat

         
        recovery [ri'kʌvəri]

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        n. 恢復,復原,痊愈

         
        global ['gləubəl]

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        adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球狀的,全局的

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        estate [is'teit]

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        n. 財產,房地產,狀態,遺產

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        absorbed [əb'sɔ:bd]

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        adj. 一心一意的;被吸收的 v. 吸收;使全神貫注(

         
        claim [kleim]

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        n. 要求,要求權;主張,斷言,聲稱;要求物

         
        measure ['meʒə]

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        n. 措施,辦法,量度,尺寸
        v. 測量,量

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        property ['prɔpəti]

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        n. 財產,所有物,性質,地產,道具

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        unemployment ['ʌnim'plɔimənt]

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        n. 失業,失業人數

         
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